How are the texts similar?
How are they different?
What kinds of sources do the authors cite?
Which arguments are most persuasive? Why?
Write a 6–8 page essay in which you consider these questions. Begin by summarizing the texts in order by date of publication. Then offer your take. Which piece do you believe is most effective? Why? What is missing from the publications? What would make the texts more persuasive? Identify new areas for scholarly inquiry. End with a brief concluding paragraph that summarizes your findings.
If you quote from a book or article please write the page number in parenthesis after the quote. Otherwise, there is no need to cite your sources. Do not include a bibliography.
How to read for this assignment
An “academic read”: This project requires a considerable amount of reading, but there are strategies for managing the reading load. For the books, I recommend reading the introduction and conclusion carefully and skimming the rest of the book. Read the opening sections of each chapter and very quickly skim the rest. Consider focusing on a few of the authors’ many examples, but do your best to avoid becoming bogged down. Utilize a similar strategy for the articles. Most academic writing is fairly formulaic; if you can understand the formula (detailed introductions followed by extensive documentation) you can save a tremendous amount of time.
Submit the assignment as a double-spaced word doc. with 12-point font.
Submit the essay to D2L no later than April 27 at 11:59 p.m.
1. African/Indigenous Encounters in North America
Tiya Miles, Ties that Bind: The Story of An Afro-Cherokee Family in Slavery and Freedom (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005).
Debra S. McDonald, “Intimacy and Empire: Indian-African Interaction in Spanish Colonial New Mexico, 1500–1800,” American Indian Quarterly 22, no. 1/2 (Winter/Spring 1998): 134–156.
Nakia D. Parker, “‘Regarded as an Appendage of His Family’: Slavery, Family, and the Law in Indian Territory,” The Journal of African American History 106, no. 1 (Winter 2021): 27–51.
2. War and Violence in British Invaded Native America
Lisa Brooks, Our Beloved Kin: A New History of King Philip’s War (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2018).
Linford D. Fisher, “‘Why shall wee have peace to bee made slaves’: Indian Surrenderers During and After King Philip’s War,” Ethnohistory 64, no. 1 (2017): 91–114.
James D. Rice, “War and Politics: Powhatan Expansionism and the Problem of Native American Warfare,” The William and Mary Quarterly 77, no. 1 (January 2020): 3–32.
3. Land in New England
Jean M. O’Brien, Dispossession by Degrees: Indian Land and Identity in Natick, Massachusetts, 1650–1790 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997).
Lion G. Miles, “The Red Man Dispossessed: The Williams Family and the Alienation of Indian Land in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, 1736–1818,” The New England Quarterly 67, no. 1 (Mar. 1994): 46–76.
Emerson W. Baker, “‘A Scratch with a Bear’s Paw’: Anglo-Indian Land Deeds in Early Maine,” Ethnohistory 36, no. 3 (Summer 1989): 235–256.
4. “Free” Labor in British Invaded North America
Nancy Shoemaker, Native American Whalemen and the World: Indigenous Encounters and the Contingency of Race (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2015).
Daniel J. Vickers, “The First Whalemen of Nantucket,” The William and Mary Quarterly 40, no. 4 (Oct. 1983): 560–583.
John A. Sainsbury, “Indian Labor in Early Rhode Island,” The New England Quarterly 48, no. 3 (Sept. 1975): 378–393.
5. Slavery and Captivity in Native America
Alan Gallay, The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670¬¬–1717 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002).
Joaquín Rivaya-Martínez, “The Captivity of Marcario Leal: A Tejano Among the Comanches, 1847–1854,” Southwestern Historical Quarterly 117, no. 4 (April 2014): 372–402.
William A. Starna and Ralph Watkins, “Northern Iroquoian Slavery,” Ethnohistory 38, no. 1 (Winter 1991): 34–57.
6. Religion in New England
Rachel Wheeler, To Live upon Hope: Mohicans and Missionaries in the Eighteenth-Century Northeast (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2008).
David J. Silverman, “Indians, Missionaries, and Religious Translation: Creating Wampanoag Christianity in Seventeenth-Century Martha’s Vineyard,” The William and Mary Quarterly 62, no. 2 (April 2005): 141–174.
Linford Fisher, “‘It Provd but Temporary & Short Lived’: Pequot Participation in the First Great Awakening,” Ethnohistory 59, no. 3 (July 2012): 465–488.
7. Indigenous Power and Resistance to European Invasion in the Southwest
Nancy McGown Minor, The Light Gray People: An Ethno-History of the Lipan Apaches of Texas and Northern Mexico (New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2009).
Stefanie Beninato, “Popé, Pose-yemu, and Naranjo: A New Look at Leadership in the Pueblo Revolt of 1680,” New Mexico Historical Review 64, no. 4 (Oct. 1990): 417–435.
Henry F. Dobyns, “Puebloan Historic Demographic Trends,” Ethnohistory 49, no. 1 (2002): 171–204.
8. Power, Violence, and Resistance on the Plains
Pekka Hämäläinen, The Comanche Empire (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008).
Ned Blackhawk, “The Displacement of Violence: Ute Diplomacy and the Making of New Mexico’s Eighteenth-Century Northern Borderlands,” Ethnohistory 54, no. 4 (Fall 2007): 723-755.
Richard White, “The Winning of the West: The Expansion of the Western Sioux in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries,” The Journal of American History 65, no. 2 (Sept. 1978): 319–343.
9. The Iroquois “Confederacy”: Indigenous Power and Resistance in the Northeast
Daniel K. Richter, The Ordeal of the Longhouse: The People of the Iroquois League in the Era of European Colonization (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992).
J. David Lehman, “The End of the Iroquois Mystique: The Oneida Land Cession Treaties of the 1780s,” The William and Mary Quarterly 47, no. 4 (Oct. 1990): 523–547.
David Levinson, “An Explanation of the Oneida-Colonist Alliance in the American Revolution,” Ethnohistory 23, no. 3 (1976): 265–289.
10. The Ecology of Native America
William Cronon, Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England (New York: Hill and Wang, 1983).
Pekka Hämäläinen, “The Politics of Grass: European Expansion, Ecological Change, and Indigenous Power in the Southwest Borderlands,” The William and Mary Quarterly 67, no. 2 (April 2010): 173–208.
James Taylor Carson, “Horses and the Economy and Culture of the Choctaw Indians, 1690-1840,” Ethnohistory 42 no. 3 (Summer 1995): 495¬–513.
11. Indigenous Women, Germans, and Seminole Maroons: Three Perspectives on Indigenous-European Encounters in the Borderlands
Juliana Barr, Peace Came in the Form of a Woman: Indians and Spaniards in the Texas Borderlands (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007).
Karl A. Hoerig, “The Relationship between German Immigrants and Native Peoples in Western Texas,” Southwestern Historical Quarterly 97 (January 1994): 422–451.
Rocío Gil, “The Mascogo/Black Seminole Diaspora: The Intertwining Borders of Citizenship, Race, and Ethnicity,” Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies, 9, no. 1 (2014): 23–43.
12. Indigenous Resistance and Accommodation to Religious Conversion
Ramón A. Gutiérrez, When Jesus Came the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500¬¬–1846 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991).
Albert L. Hurtado, “Sexuality in California’s Franciscan Missions: Cultural Perceptions and Sad Realities,” California History 71, no. 3 (1992): 370–385.
David Mandell, “‘To Live More Like my Christian English Neighbors’: Natick Indians in the Eighteenth Century,” The William and Mary Quarterly 48, no. 4 (Oct. 1991): 552–579.
13. The Violence of Empire and Indigenous Resistance to European Invasion
David J. Silverman, Thundersticks: Firearms and the Violent Transformation of Native America (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2016).
Tim Seiter, “The Karankawa-Spanish War from 1778 to 1789: Attempted Genocide and Karankawa Power,” Southwestern Historical Quarterly 124, no. 4 (April 2021): 375–410.
Elizabeth Ellis, “The Natchez War Revisited: Multinational Settlements and Indigenous Diplomacy in the Lower Mississippi Valley,” The William and Mary Quarterly 77, no. 3 (July 2020): 441–472.
14. Indigenous Power and Spanish Invaders in the Southeast and Southwest
David LaVere, The Caddo Chiefdoms: Caddo Economics and Politics, 700–1835 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1998).
Julianna Barr, “Geographies of Power: Mapping Indian Borders in the ‘Borderlands’ of the Early Southwest,” The William and Mary Quarterly 68, no. 1 (January 2011): 5–46.
Steven W. Hackel, “The Staff of Leadership: Indian Authority in the Missions of Alta California,” The William and Mary Quarterly 54, no. 2 (Apr. 1997): 347–376.
15. The Violence of European Invasion in the Native Great Lakes
Timothy D. Willig, Restoring the Chain of Friendship: British Policy & the Indians of the Great Lakes, 1783–1815 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2008).
Leroy V. Eid, “The Ojibwa-Iroquois War: The War the Five Nations Did Not Win,” Ethnohistory 26, no. 4 (Autumn 1979): 297–324.
Andrew Sturtevant, “‘Inseparable Companions’ and Irreconcilable Enemies: The Hurons and Odawas of French Detroit,” Ethnohistory 60, no. 2 (Apr. 2013): 219–243.
16. Indigenous Women in the French Commercial World
Susan Sleeper-Smith, Indian Women and French Men: Rethinking Cultural Encounter in the Western Great Lakes (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001).
Sylvia Van Kirk, “The Role of Native Women in the Fur Trade Society of Western Canada, 1670–1830,” Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 7, no. 3 (1984): 9–13.
Christopher Steinke, “Women in Bullboats: Indigenous Women Navigate the Upper Missouri River,” Ethnohistory 64, no. 4 (October 2017): 449–470.
17. Indigenous-European Networks of Information, Family, and Resistance in the Native South
Katherine E. Holland Braun, Deerskins and Duffels: The Creek Indian Trade with Anglo-America, 1685–1815 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2008).
Alejandra Dubcovsky, “One Hundred Sixty One Knots, Two Plates, and One Emperor: Creek Information Networks in the Era of the Yamasee War,” Ethnohistory 59, no. 3 (July 2012): 489–513.
Kathleen DuVal, “Indian Intermarriage and Métissage in Colonial Louisiana,” The William and Mary Quarterly 65, no. 2 (April 2008): 267–304.
18. Family, Violence, and Trade in the British-Invaded South
Robert Paulett, An Empire of Small Places: Mapping the Southeastern Anglo-Indian Trade, 1732–1795 (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2012).
Paul Kelton, “The British and Indian War: Cherokee Power and the Fate of Empire in North America,” The William and Mary Quarterly 69, no. 4 (Oct. 2012): 763–792.
Kathryn E. Holland-Braun, “Guardians of Tradition and Handmaidens to Change: Women’s Roles in Creek Economic and Social Life During the Eighteenth Century,” American Indian Quarterly 14, no. 3 (1990): 239–258.
19. Long-Lasting Indigenous Responses to European Invasion
Paul Conrad, The Apache Diaspora: Four Centuries of Displacement and Survival (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2021).
Elsa M. Redmond, “Meeting with Resistance: Early Spanish Encounters in the Americas, 1492–1524,” Ethnohistory 63, no. 4 (October 2016): 671–695.
Neal Salisbury, “The Indians’ Old World: Native Americans and the Coming of Europeans,” The William and Mary Quarterly 53, no. 3 (July 1996): 435–458.
20. Biological Invaders: European Pathogens in Native America
Alfred W. Crosby, Jr., The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1972).
Linea Sundstrom, “Smallpox Used Them Up: References to Epidemic Disease in Northern Plains Winter Counts,” Ethnohistory 44, no. 2 (Spring 1997): 335¬–343.
Joaquín Rivaya-Martínez, “A Different Look at Native American Depopulation: Comanche Raiding, Captive Taking, and Population Decline,” Ethnohistory 61, no. 3 (2014): 391–418.
21. Indigenous “Urban” Centers in a Time of European Invasion
Joshua Piker, Okfuskee: A Creek Indian Town in Colonial America (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004).
Helen Hornbeck Tanner, “The Glaize in 1792: A Composite Indian Community,” Ethnohistory 25, no. 1 (Winter 1978): 15–39.
Saul Schwartz and William Green, “Middle Ground or Native Ground? Material Culture at Iowaville,” Ethnohistory 60, no. 4 (537-565).
22. Contesting Borders and Shaping Empires in Native America
Michael Witgen, An Infinity of Nations: How the Native New World Shaped Early North America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012).
Daniel J. Gelo, “‘Comanche Land and Ever has Been,’ A Native Geography of the Nineteenth Century Comanchería,” Southwestern Historical Quarterly 103, no. 3 (Jan. 2000): 273–307.
“‘We Have Always Been the Frontier’: The American Revolution in Shawnee Country,” American Indian Quarterly 16, no. 1 (1992): 39–52.
23. Indigenous and European Family Life in Two Spaces: Illinois and Virginia
Robert Michael Morrissey, Empire by Collaboration: Indians, Colonists, and Governments in Colonial Illinois Country (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015).
Robert Michael Morrissey, “Kaskaskia Social Network: Kinship and Assimilation in the French-Illinois Borderlands, 1695-1735,” The William and Mary Quarterly 70, no. 1 (January 2013): 103–146.
David D. Smits, “‘Abominable Mixture’: Toward the Repudiation of Anglo-Indian Intermarriage in Seventeenth-Century Virginia,” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 95, no. 2 (April 1987): 157-192.
24. The Revolution in Indigenous America
Colin G. Calloway, The American Revolution in Indian Country: Crisis and Diversity on Native American Communities (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).
Edward Countryman, “Indians, the Colonial Order, and the Social Significance of the American Revolution,” The William and Mary Quarterly 53, no. 2 (1996): 342–362.
Caitlin A. Fitz, “‘Suspected on Both Sides’: Little Abraham, Iroquois Neutrality, and the American Revolution,” Journal of the Early Republic 28, no. 3 (2008): 299–335.
25. Indigenous People in the Early American Republic
Colin G. Calloway: The Indian World of George Washington: The First President, the First Americans, and the Birth of a Nation (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).
Gregory Ablavsky, “Species of Sovereignty: Native Nationhood, the United States, and International Law, 1783–1795,” Journal of American History 106, no. 3 (December 2019): 591–613.
Gregory Evans Dowd, “Indigenous Peoples without the Republic,” Journal of American History 104, no. 1 (June 2017): 19–41.
26. Indigenous Peoples’ Religious Resistance
Willard H. Rollings, Unaffected by the Gospel: Osage Resistance to the Christian Invasion 1673-1906: A Cultural Victory (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2004).
Quincy D. Newell, “The Varieties of Religious Experience: Baptized Indians at Mission San Francisco de Asís, 1776–1821,” The American Indian Quarterly 32, no. 4 (Fall 2008): 412–442.
Deana Dartt-Newton, Jon Erlandson, “Little Choice for the Chumash: Colonialism, Cattle, and Coercion in Mission Period California,” The American Indian Quarterly 32, nos. 3 & 4 (January 2006): 416–430.
27. The Métis of North America
Lucy Eldersveld Murphy, A Gathering of Rivers: Indians, Métis, and Mining in the Western Great Lakes, 1737-1832 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004).
Tom Arne Midtrød, “The Flemish Bastard and the Former Indians: Métis and Identity in Seventeenth-Century New York,” The American Indian Quarterly 34, no. 1 (Winter 2010): 83–108.
Brenda Macdougall, “Speaking of Métis: Reading Family Life into Colonial Records,” Ethnohistory 61, no. 1 (February 2014): 27–56.
28. Creek Power and Resistance
Kevin Kokomor, Of One Mind and of One Government: The Rise and Fall of the Creek Nation in the Early Republic (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2018).
Evan Nooe, “Common Justice: Vengeance and Retribution in Creek Country,” Ethnohistory 62, no. 2 (May 2015): 241–261.
Alejandra Dubcovsky, “One Hundred Sixty-One Knots, Two Plates, and One Emperor: Creek Information Networks in the Era of the Yamasee War,” Ethnohistory 59, no. 3 (August 2012): 489–513.
29. Ecological Resistance in the Indigenous World
Virginia DeJohn Anderson, Creatures of Empire: How Domestic Animals Transformed Early America (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).
Thomas Wickman, “‘Winters Embittered with Hardships’: Severe Cold, Wabanaki Power, and English Adjustments, 1690-1710,” William and Mary Quarterly 72, no. 1 (January 2015): 57-98.
Richard Conway, “Lakes, Canoes, and the Aquatic Communities of Xochimilco and Chalco, New Spain,” Ethnohistory 59, no. 3 (August 2012): 541–568.
30. Violence, Warfare, and Indigenous Resistance in New England
Christine M. Delucia, Memory Lands: King Philip’s War and the Place of Violence in the Northeast (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2018).
Drew Lopenzina, “Letter from Barnstable Jail: William Apess and the ‘Memorial of the Mashpee Indians,’” Native American and Indigenous Studies 3, no. 2 (Fall 2016): 105–127.
Jason Mancini, “‘In Contempt and Oblivion’: Censuses, Ethnogeography, and Hidden Indian Histories in Eighteenth-Century Southern New England,” Ethnohistory 62, no. 1 (January 2015): 61–94.
31. Indigenous Resistance and War in British-Invaded North America
Gregory E. Dowd, War Under Heaven: Pontiac, The Indian Nations, and the British Empire (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002).
James D. Rice, “Bacon’s Rebellion in Indian Country,” Journal of American History 101, no. 3 (December 2014): 726–750.
Gregory E. Dowd, “The Panic of 1751: Rumors on the Cherokee-South Carolina Frontier,” William and Mary Quarterly 53, no. 3 (July 1996): 527-560.
32. Africans and Indigenous People: New Spain, New France, and the English Mainland Colonies
Matthew Restall, The Black Middle: Africans, Mayans, and Spaniards in Colonial Yucatan (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2009).
George Edward Milne, “Bondsmen, Servants, and Slaves: Social Hierarchies in the Heart of Seventeenth-Century North America,” Ethnohistory 64, no. 1 (January 2017): 115–139.
Gloria McCahon Whiting, “Power, Patriarchy, and Provision: African Families Negotiate Gender and Slavery in New England,” Journal of American History 103, no. 3 (December 2016): 583–605.
33. The Indigenous World Resists Early Invasions
Charles C. Mann, 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus (New York: Vintage, 2005).
Erin W. Stone, “The Conquest of Española as a ‘Structure of Conjuncture,’” Ethnohistory 68, no. 3 (July 2021): 363–383.
William F. Keegan, “Mobility and Disdain: Columbus and Cannibals in the Land of Cotton,” Ethnohistory 62, no. 1 (January 2015): 1–15.
34. Methods, Ethical Concerns, and Responsibilities in Writing Indigenous History
Vine Deloria, Jr., Red Earth, White Lies: Native Americans and the Myth of Scientific Fact (Golden, Colo.: Fulcrum Press, 1997).
Robert Alexander Innes, “‘Wait a Second. Who Are You Anyways?’: The Insider/Outsider Debate and American Indian Studies,” The American Indian Quarterly 33, no. 4 (Fall 2009): 440–461.
Clara Sue Kidwell, “American Indian Studies: Intellectual Navel Gazing or Academic Discipline?” The American Indian Quarterly 33, no. 1 (Winter 2009): 1–17.
35. Expulsion, Resistance, and Memory During the Early Republic
Andrew Denson, Monuments to Absence: Cherokee Removal and the Contest over Southern Memory (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017).
Claudia B. Haake, “Civilization, Law, and Customary Diplomacy: Arguments against Removal in Cherokee and Seneca Letters to the Federal Government,” Native American and Indigenous Studies 4, no. 2 (Fall 2017): 31–51.
Claudio Saunt, “Financing Dispossession: Stocks, Bonds, and the Deportation of Native Peoples in the Antebellum United States,” Journal of American History 106, no. 2 (September 2019): 315–337.
36. Seminole Resistance, Migration, and Survival
Kevin Mulroy, Freedom on the Border: The Seminole Maroons in Florida, the Indian Territory, Coahuila, and Texas (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 1993).
Cameron B. Strang, “Violence, Ethnicity, and Human Remains during the Second Seminole War,” Journal of American History 100, no. 4 (March 2014): 973–994.
Rebecca B. Bateman, “Naming Patterns in Black Seminole Ethnogenesis,” Ethnohistory 49, no. 2 (Spring 2002): 227-257. Rebecca B. Bateman, “Naming Patterns in Black Seminole Ethnogenesis,” Ethnohistory 49, no. 2 (Spring 2002): 227-257.