This chapter will provide an introduction to the current study of the relationship between Pro-environmental Behavior) and biospheric value mainly recycling, by first discussing pervious study defining Pro-environmental Behavior and how it related to social norms followed by the research problem, the research aims, objectives and questions, the significance of the study and finally, the limitations.
Background and context
Pro-environmental behavior is can be defined as all possible actions aimed to avoiding harm in the environment (Steg and Vlek, 2009), either performed in public (e.g., participation in environmental movements) or private domains (e.g., recycling; Hadler and Haller, 2011). There are four important values that defined the structure of pro-environmental behavior these values are namely biospheric values, altruistic values, egoistic), and hedonic values, however biospheric value has strong relationship on pro environmental behavior specially recycling. Values derived from the biosphere reflect things larger than oneself: the environment In addition to others and society. (Bouman, Steg et al. 2020) Steg et al., 2014b). A number of studies have been conducted in Western Europe and the United States, with limited evidence of the connection between people’s biospheric values and their self-identity as environmentalists. In Lithuania correlational study was performed and the study found that people’s general environmental concerns were positively correlated with recycling and environmental activism, However, not with fuel-efficient vehicles and sustainable transportation.(Balunde, Perlaviciute et al. 2019). A survey was conducted in Lithuania from April to July of 2016 using sample selection method. Another study in Malaysia through a survey of 72 students at one of the training centers.(Yusliza, Amirudin et al. 2020). Using partial least squares (PLS) methodology, The Study results indicated that environmental commitment, environmental consciousness, green living, and Green self-efficacy positively affects pro-environmental behavior, contributing new insights to the literature on environmental sustainability. However, there is no study found to fill the gap in pro environmental behavior and factors that encarouge such as behavior in Saudi Arabia.
Problem Background (Statement of the Problem)
We are changing the biosphere in unprecedented patterns, and addressing this challenge will require changes in individual and community behaviors (Perry, Richardson et al. 2021). From Food and drink containers togroceries bags, plastic is ingrained into almost every aspect of our lives. There are 6 tons of plastic in the world today yet only 8% is recycled .(Herdiansyah, Benyamin et al. 2018). In Eastern province of Saudi Arabia there is a lack of knowledge in term sustainability, 42.4%, of the heard about sustainability from school or university(Alsaati, El-Nakla et al. 2020). the majority of society show less interest in recycling and waste segregation in daily life practice. Eastern region of Saudi Arabia is projected to generate 3.5 billion tons of solid waste within 30 years from it two billion tons in 2016.(Labib, Manaf et al. 2021),
However, there is a lake of study that investigate the relationship between pro-environmental and biospheric value mainly and how does it encourage environmental self-identity.
Research aim and objectives:
The aim of this research is to shed light on recycling and how the use of recycling will encourage pro-environmental in Saudi Arabia. To accomplish the aim of this research and to answer its related questions, some essential objectives have to be met:
Research Questions and Objectives
1st Q. What are the major factors that encourage pro environmental behavior society in Dammam city?
• To Measure Saudi pro environmental behavior in public spaces.
• Evaluate social norms and it effect on recycling behavior in public Buildings in Dammam city .
to what extend Saudi Society individuals care about recycling in daily life practice?
• observe social behavior and subject Norms among young generations and old generation.
Alsaati, T., et al. (2020). “Level of Sustainability Awareness among University Students in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.” Sustainability 12(8).
Balunde, A., et al. (2019). “The Relationship Between People’s Environmental Considerations and Pro-environmental Behavior in Lithuania.” Front Psychol 10: 2319.
Bouman, T., et al. (2020). “The value of what others value: When perceived biospheric group values influence individuals’ pro-environmental engagement.” Journal of Environmental Psychology 71.
Herdiansyah, H., et al. (2018). “Norm activation theory in the plastic age: Explaining children’s pro-environmental behaviour.” E3S Web of Conferences 74.
Labib, O. A., et al. (2021). “Understanding the Effect of Internal and External Factors on Households’ Willingness to Sort Waste in Dammam City, Saudi Arabia.” Int J Environ Res Public Health 18(18).
Perry, G. L. W., et al. (2021). “Evaluating the Role of Social Norms in Fostering Pro-Environmental Behaviors.” Frontiers in Environmental Science 9.
Yusliza, M. Y., et al. (2020). “An Investigation of Pro-Environmental Behaviour and Sustainable Development in Malaysia.” Sustainability 12(17).