Exam I – HIS 102-80, Spring 2022
THEME: INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY
Ever since the idea of “modern” Europe emerged, the question “How much freedom can the individual be given without endangering the society as a whole?” has been asked, and answered, in a variety of conflicting ways. Today, as leaders around the world struggle with COVID-19, this philosophical question has become the flashpoint of the pandemic, namely: “As a matter of public health, how can governmental leaders convince people to accept individual responsibility for the welfare of the public as a whole and ultimately defeat the virus?”
For the purposes of this essay, answer each of the following four sets of questions/statements pertaining to each and every one of the theorists (A – F) listed below the questions.
As detailed in his speeches, books, and treatises, throughout his own lifetime, what problems did the theorist feel compelled to address?
2. ULTIMATE HOPE
As outlined in his speeches, books, and treatises, with whom does the theorist ultimately place his hope to deal with the problems – the ruler, the people, or some combination of the two? Moreover, why does the theorist believe his assertions are true, reasonable, and just?
3. TYRANNY vs. REBELLION
As delineated in his speeches, books, and treatises, to what degree does he believe the people should fear their ruler becoming tyrannical as he deals with the problems? Moreover, if the ruler does become a tyrant, to what degree are the people allowed to rebel against the tyranny – even to the point of committing tyrannicide? Finally, what constraints (if any) prevent the people from rebelling against the tyrannical actions of their ruler and his government?
4. PROOF REQUIREMENTS
To garner as many points possible in making your case, be sure to make specific references not only to the theorists’ speeches, books, and treatises but also to the “Instructor’s Lectures” and the required textbook material.
~ ~ ~ THE THEORISTS ~ ~ ~
A. Philippe de Mornay
B. Thomas Hobbes
C. John Locke
E. Jean Jacques Rousseau
F. Adam Smith