Structuring a Scholarly Research Paper (Project B)
A Master’s Project B combines both primary and secondary research. Primary research means you are conducting your own study, experiment, or investigation. The information you are gaining is original with you. Secondary research means you are studying the works of others. The information comes from published books, articles, and other sources. In Project B, your secondary research is your literature review, and your primary research is described in your methods and your results.
PARTS OF A RESEARCH PAPER
1. Title Page
4. Literature Review
9. Appendices (if applicable)
1. Title Page (APA Style)
Select an academic-style title that previews the content of the paper. Readers use such academic titles to select articles and to get a quick sense of what an article is about. Academic titles can state the research question, summarize the thesis or purpose, or be written as a two-part title with a colon. The title page should contain the title of the paper, the author’s name, and the institutional affiliation. Include the page header flush left with the page number flush right at the top of the page. Please note that on the title page, your page header should look like this-> Running head: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER. Type your title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page. APA recommends that your title be no more than 12 words in length and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. Your title may take up one or two lines. All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced. Beneath the title, type the author’s name: first name, middle initial(s), and last name. Beneath the author’s name, type the institutional affiliation, which should indicate the location where the author(s) conducted the research. Please look online for samples of APA style title pages.
This is a brief (75-120 words) comprehensive summary of the paper, which allows the reader to survey the contents of the paper quickly. The abstract should address the background, purpose of study (i.e. the research questions or hypotheses), methods used, results and conclusion. Model the abstract of your paper after the abstracts of the research articles you have read in peer reviewed journals.
All documents must be able to stand on their own by including an introduction to orient the reader. The purpose of the introduction is to establish a context (general background information), preview the content of the paper, and frame the significance of the research. You may tell why this problem has been a problem or why you think this particular slant or angle to the problem is important. You can also mention what benefits are to be gained from solving this problem or exploring this topic from your perspective. A well-written introduction provides a blueprint for the entire paper.
4. Literature Review
The purpose of a literature review is to sketch the background on the research problem (hypotheses or research questions) and give readers a context to show them the present research inquiry fits into the scholarly conversation currently ongoing in that subject area. A literature review discusses published information in a particular subject area, and sometimes information in a particular subject area within a certain time period.
A literature review is not a simple summary of sources; rather, it has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis. It might give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations. Or it might trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates. The lit review uses a general-to-specific movement in its organization, establishing the thesis and setting the context for the research. The literature review supports the study hypotheses or research questions (RQs), and ends with a clear statement of the hypotheses and/or RQs. The rest of the paper will be organized around these hypotheses or RQs.
Use subheadings to separate your literature into relevant themes. Possible themes are: discussion of general topics to frame the study (e.g. depictions of minorities in music videos, green advertising, etc.), discussion of specific variables (e.g. brand loyalty, consumer need for uniqueness, creativity, etc.), or discussion of theories guiding the research (e.g. social learning, diffusion of innovations, elaboration likelihood model, etc.). Remember that the focus of a literature review is to summarize and synthesize the arguments and ideas of others. There are no opinions in the literature review, only a synthesis of others’ work. The tone and style of your literature review should be modeled after the literature review sections of the peer-reviewed research articles you have read.
The methods section of your research paper describes in detail how the study was conducted. You must describe how you selected the sample for your study. You should include descriptions of any materials you used — questionnaires, code sheets, or interview questions — to generate data. This section also details the procedures involved in collecting and analyzing the data. This section is written in past tense, because when the final paper is written the study has been completed. Typical subheadings in a methods section include: Participants, Measures and Procedures:
• Participants: Describes the number and demographics of the participants and describes how the sample was selected.
• Measures: Explains tests or surveys used for assessment. Cites the source of
each measure used and describes the measure completely.
• Procedure: Gives details on the way the assessment was conducted. Be very clear and concise so that another researcher would know exactly what to do in order to replicate the study and obtain similar results. Clearly describe the steps involved in both data collection and data analysis.
This section simply presents and reports your findings based on the data you have collected. How you present the results of your research depends on what kind of research you did, and whether your study tested hypotheses or responded to research questions. Quantitative information, data that can be measured, can be presented systematically and economically in tables, charts, and graphs. Qualitative information, which includes brief descriptions, explanations, or quotes, can also be presented in prose tables. This kind of descriptive or explanatory information, however, is often presented in paragraphs or even lists.
The results section should be organized by research question or hypothesis. You should include some commentary to explain to your reader what your findings are and how to read them, but do not include an evaluation or interpretation of the data (that belongs in the Discussion section).
There are specific conventions for creating tables, charts, and graphs. In general, you should use these only when you are sure they will help readers understand the findings – avoid tables and graphs that may confuse the reader. It is not necessary to repeat everything in the tables in an accompanying explanation. Rather, the accompanying text should explain to the reader what is contained in the tables, without repeating it. Always number your tables and figures, and refer to them by number in the text. The rule of thumb for presenting a table or graphic is to first introduce it, show it, and then explain it (without repeating all the information contained in the table or graphic).
Your discussion section should comment on what you have learned from your research. It should be organized so that it relates directly to your research questions and hypothesis, and related back to your literature review. You want to avoid introducing new ideas here or discussing tangential issues not directly related to your study. This is the only part of the research paper where personal opinion or speculation beyond what is in the data is allowed. This is your opportunity to elaborate on the significance of your research, and comment on how it fits into the current scholarly conversation on your topic. The discussion section typically includes “Limitations” and “Recommendations.”
Under the “Recommendations” subheading, you may recommend a course of action, make a prediction, propose a solution to a problem, offer a judgment, or speculate on the implications and consequences of your ideas. The limitations section comments on any limitations of the study (and every study has them) that the reader should consider when assessing the validity of the findings. Do not end your paper with limitations. Wrap up the discussion section with a brief conclusion that recaps the most important findings and the contribution of the research.
This section lists references to all secondary research throughout the text. This list must be organized alphabetically by author and formatted in APA style. Citing your references in the text and documenting them appropriately in the reference is critical to maintain academic integrity. The references page will list only sources actually cited in the paper.
The appendix is the place to put a copy of the research instrument, sample consent forms, recruitment fliers, etc.
Below is an attachment of the started paper. Also the results of the survey, mythology, ligature review, introduction, example of the project, project outline and
more. Please put/ format and add things to it all together, adding a table of contents, results, discussion, references, and appendices.
(negative influencer) Please add the the story about Brittany Dawn scandal, from back in 2019, about scamming people, and false advertisement, talk about
her eating disorder, the unethical communication she had. Talk about Khloe Kardashian fat shaming back in 2019 on a podcast. Her unethical
communication on social media plat forms, promoting fitness and her wok out cloths when in fact she had multiple surgeries to look how she looks right
(postitive influencers) Talk about Iskra Lawerence, her stand in the NY subway for body positivity, the way she talk about it on instagram, shows that anyone
could be a model, the products she promotes are true to what they are. Talk about Daniella Monet, being a mother, and recommending things to buy that she
only uses, consumes, and/ or wears. Her transparency on social media of her life and her personal purchases and collaborations. Talk about Georgie Clarke,
her positivity on the gym but also the ethical communication about not looking photo shopped on social media, how all bodies are beautiful, promoting only
fitness products that she wear and/ or consumes.
Combine the Theory of Human Dignity with the way these influencers use their platforms.
Bring all of these into the research about Ethical Communication of Influencers on Social Media in Body Image and LifeStyle