Paper topic 2

Please analyze the following argument in terms of validity and truth.

Some arguments with mood and figure IEA-3 are not arguments with mood and figure OAI-4

No arguments with mood and figure IEA-3 are valid

Some arguments with mood and figure AOO-4 are not valid .

No arguments with mood and figure OAI-4 are arguments with mood and figure AOO-4

The intermediate conclusion is this: No arguments with mood and figure OAI-4 are valid

(You must use the intermediate conclusion.)

Please put this sorites in standard logical form. Provide the mood and figure for both syllogisms. Is this argument valid? Is it sound? Define the terms ‘sorites’ and ‘enthymeme’. Explain why each premise and the conclusion of the argument is true. Explain why the intermediate conclusion is true. PLEASE PROVE THAT BOTH SYLLOGISMS OF THE SORITES ARE INVALID BY A COUNTEREXAMPLE. PROVE THAT IEA-3, AOO-4, and OAI-4 are INVALID BY COUNTEREXAMPLES. You will not be given credit for Venn diagrams or Salmon’s rules—this is a counterexample paper. Why might we be tempted to think the argument is sound?

Additional instructions

1. You want to review the information on counterexamples and sorities in the course packet.

2. When you reduce this argument to standard logical form, you will end up with two invalid syllogisms. You do not have to describe the steps you used to put the argument in standard logical form. Both syllogisms will use the variables S,P, and M (no other letters are needed.) The example provided at the beginning of the homework for sorites (pages 117-118) will be more useful than the reading. Since you will end up with two invalid syllogisms, do not use the hints for an enthymeme.

3. You will be proving that arguments are invalid by counterexamples. You do not have to explain why the premises are true and the conclusion is false for your counterexamples. This should be obvious. This is one reason why counterexamples often use the terms ‘dogs’ and ‘cats’.

4. Give the forms for IEA-3, OAI-4, and AOO-4 at least once. I want to see that you are capable of giving a form, if you are given the mood and figure. You should not expect me to infer these forms from your counterexamples. Neither syllogism of the sorites will be IEA-3, OAI-4 or AOO-4

5. Remember, we are training you to give examples when relevant. Examples often provide the proof or evidence to justify your explanations. Your examples should be categorical syllogisms. Don’t just claim that a valid argument can have false premises and a true conclusion. Prove it. The proof is an example.

6. Organize your material. Do not discuss ‘sorites’ and ‘enthymeme’ in the middle of your paper.

7. Use paragraphs. Give a paragraph for each premise and conclusion. This way you are less likely to skimp in your discussion.

8. Good writing counts.