This assignment is a reply to 2 student on discussion board. Instructions
Late posts do not get any credit. Posts must be substantive and reflect thought and effort in the discussion. Each post must have a reference, correctly cited in APA format. Always remember to cite and reference your resources appropriately using APA format. You should be using in-text citations in your initial response. Use in-text citations as needed in your replies.
Student #1 A
Manage Discussion Entry
• How do researchers determine reliability in a study? Describe the major types of each.
Reliability is getting the same results each time by using the same methods under the same circumstances. There are 3 types of reliability:
1) Stability (Test-retest): is concerned with the reproducibility of scores with repeated measures of the same concept with a scale or instrument over time (Grove & Gray, 2019).
2) Equivalence which includes, a) Alternate forms: comparison of two versions of the same instrument (Grove & Gray, 2019). b) Inter-rater: compare how equal the observation of two observers or judges are in a study. The interrater reliability value is best at a value of 90% (Grove & Gray, 2019).
3) Interval Consistency (Homogeneity) is used to compare each item on a scale to one another to determine consistency (Grove & Gray, 2019).
• How do researchers determine validity in a study? Describe the major types of each. Validity is the accuracy of a measure. According to Grove & Gray (2019), there are three most used types of validity in nursing research:
1) content validity which examines the degree to which the measurement method includes all the major items relevant to the construct being studied (Grove & Gray, 2019).
2) Construct validity focuses on determining whether the instrument actually measures what it is supposed to measure (Grove & Gray, 2019). There are 3 subtypes: contrasting group, convergent, divergent.
3) Criterion-related can be predictive or concurrent. It is when a study participant’s score can be used to infer future performance on another variable or criterion (Grove & Gray, 2019).
• As a member of a journal club that is discussing the instructor assigned article in this course, what would you identify as strengths and / or weaknesses of the reliability and validity section of this article? Hint: Use Chapter 10 to help you answer these questions.
In the instructor assigned article “Relationships Among Resilience, Stress, and Persistence in Prenursing Students During COVID-19” by Urban, Jennings & Cipher (2022), the instruments used were valid and reliable. Researchers used a specific scale for each of the variables: stress (PSS-10), resilience (RS-14), and persistence (PSOE-N) and calculated the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient which indicated strong internal reliability. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was also compared to various previous studies. In the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Cronbach’s alpha score was 0.87, 0.86 for the resilience scale, and 0.81 for the persistence scale. We can say that those instruments were consistent and accurate.
Urban, R. W. N.-B. C.-L., Jennings, L. A. /Ed, C., & Cipher, D. J. (2022). Relationships Among Resilience, Stress, and Persistence in Prenursing Students During COVID-19. Nurse Educator, 47(2), 102–107. https://doi-org.ezproxy.uta.edu/10.1097/NNE.0000000000001146.
site.)Grove, S., & Gray, J. (2019)Understanding nursing research (7th ed). Saunder
Study #2 : Al
Researchers determine the reliability in a study by focusing “on the consistency of a measurement method” (Grove & Gray, 2019). Reliability can be described by the stability, equivalence, and internal consistency of the method. In other words, reliability can be demonstrated by obtaining the same results over and over with the help of the same method of experimentation, by using two observers or two sources to measure similarities and data correlation. The validity of a study can be determined by examining the contents and making sure the main elements are part of it, the instruments used to measure should work the same theoretically and experimentally proving the construct, if data is supposed to provide contrasting or convergent results the instrument should provide such data with the expected negative/positive correlation that can yield future results as well.
A weakness presented by the instructor assigned article is a low response rate of the final number of surveys approved by the criteria in the study. The rate for the article was 26.09% which is below the recommended 50% response rate and exposes the low “representativeness of the sample” (Grove & Gray, 2019). The strength presented by the assigned article include a repeatable method to measure and scale persistence, stress, and resilience but it requires more data from surveys to make a stronger argument.
Grove, S., & Gray, J. (2019). Understanding nursing research (7th ed). Elsevier.