Lando lives in Burnaby, British Columbia with his parents and younger sister. He graduated from high
school in 2019, uncertain about his career. He had a 78% average and played varsity football throughout
high school. However, an injury halted his athletic career in his graduating year, so he missed out on a
scholarship to attend the university of his choice, making post-secondary education more financially
Since graduation, Lando’s family has been pressuring him to try and get a job while he figures out his
future. One day, Lando was mowing the lawn and his neighbour inquired if he could also mow their
lawn, for a fee. Lando obliged, and it took him about an hour and half. He decided to charge the
neighbour $30 cash. The neighbour was happy with his work and asked Lando to come every three
weeks to mow the front and back lawn. They shared a handshake and Lando was enthusiastic about this
From there, Lando’s summer was occupied by his new business. As a result of neighbours driving by and
quick word of mouth, his customer base grew to 25 lawns that summer.
Lando realized he enjoyed working outside and the money was good, so he put his job search on hold.
During off-work hours, he watched landscaping videos to learn about different flowers and foliage,
along with using different stones and bricks to create small gardens.
Since 2019, Lando has been growing his business steadily. He has started maintaining records of
important information including the number of customers for each of his services, the price of each
services provided, and some of the incurred costs. Admittedly, he doesn’t do a very good job tracking
this information- his focus is more on the outdoors.
Number of Customers – annually 2020 2021 2022
Cutting Grass 30 35 37
Landscaping 0 5 7
Pruning 20 15 10
Gardening 8 8 8
Lando mentions that some customers are the same but request multiple services.
Price Offered Per Service 2020 2021 2022
Cutting Grass $30 $30 $30
Landscaping $15 $15 $15
Pruning $45 $45 $45
Gardening $50 $50 $50
Lando mentions that the cost of the service is not based on how much time it takes, it’s based on each
Expenses 2020 2021 2022*
Fuel $525 $675 $400
Supplies 200 250 175
Tools 1,000 375 200
Maintenance – 250 500
Marketing flyers – 250 190
Plants 150 195 350
Dirt and soil 60 90 120
Fertilizer 20 80 140
Lawnmowing Equipment 1,200 200 100
Watering hoses 50 – –
Watering containers 300 – –
Waste Disposal 60 65 75
* The values for 2022 are from January to September 2022.
Lando doesn’t know the difference between the income statement and balance sheet, but would like
you to prepare a proper income statement and perform some sort of horizontal or vertical analysis on
his figures. He is open to any insight that you can provide on running his business.
The work that he does is cyclical in nature. In the fall, he is busy with pruning and gardening. The winters
are relatively quiet and business is slow. In the spring, there is a lot of replanting and gardening, while
the summer requires a lot of cutting grass.
Lando works 6 days a week in the summer to keep up with demand, but the fall and winter tend to be
slower. He is considering advertising at his local high school to find some students to help him in the
summer months. He’s planning to pay them about $16 per hour but he has heard that some in the
industry hire students for under minimum wage and pay them cash. He wants your advice on how to
proceed. Alternatively, Lando can work with his friend Carlos who is going through business school and
has some free time in the summers. Carlos says he wants to be an equity partner and is willing to pay
$8,000 to be in business together for the long term (50% ownership each). He says he’ll help Lando with
the bookkeeping as well. Lando wants a detailed analysis on hiring Carlos as an employee or bringing
him onboard as a partner. Lando would love an extra $8,000 in his bank account, but wants to do his
Lando’s sister, Jenna, is taking accounting classes and has informed Lando that he has to record
depreciation on his lawnmower and other equipment. Lando purchased all of his equipment in 2020 and
expects it to last for around 8 years with the current level of use. One of the lawnmowers was acting up
this year so he paid $500 in maintenance. The repairman said it should extend its life for another 2 years
with the installation of a new power belt. Lando has classified this as an expense, but is unsure of its
implications. Jenna also mentioned for a proper income statement, he has to record cost of goods sold
and operating expenses and assign depreciation as overhead. Lando had a long day and didn’t really
understand what Jenna was asking of him. He is trying to decipher how can he apply depreciation as an
overhead expense and why tracking cost really matter when he’s making money.
When purchasing more fertilizer from his local garden shop he saw a motorized driveable lawn mower
on sale for $3,000. With this he expects to increase capacity and his lawnmowing capabilities by 6 times.
He would still charge $30 per job, but would be able to do it three times as fast and thus increase
capacity. The added cost of fuel is estimated to be $200 per year. Lando is unsure whether it’s a good
investment and wants to see what the net present value calculation returns. He is also curious what the
cash payback period would be. If the investment makes sense, Lando can borrow the money on a 6.25%
Given that business is slow in the winters, Lando wants to do an Arborist certificate which will take two
years and costs $6,000. He is wondering if he should first save up the money, borrow it as a student
loan, or forgo it altogether. With this certificate, he is hoping to gain more fruitful employment with the
city or a golf course and earn $35 per hour. He is uncertain in what decision to make.
Lastly, Lando thinks that with an additional employee he will have some excess capacity which will help
grow his customer base. He is wondering if it is worthwhile to put some more effort into marketing.
Currently, he prints and distributes flyers around his neighbourhood. Some of his satisfied customers are
happy to distribute flyers on his behalf. By spending $230 a month on newspaper advertisements, he
believes the next two-year annual growth rate can be boosted to 4.75%. Otherwise, the growth will be
similar to what it has been historically.
Lando wants a detailed analysis of his business plan. He wants advice on ethics, business strategies, and
other relevant matters. Lando welcomes any recommendations, as well as any questions to him which
will help you better analyze his options. Please prepare a business memo to Lando, addressing all issues
raised in this case.